Cystectomy is a surgical procedure during which the ovarian cyst is removed either with laparoscopy, or an open surgery. A laparoscopic cystectomy procedure is a minimally invasive surgery during which a laparoscope, a long thin instrument with a camera attached at one end is used. The procedure is usually done under general anaesthesia and a small incision is usually made below the navel. A laparoscope is inserted through this incision to see the inside of your pelvis and abdomen. Carbon dioxide gas is introduced into the abdominal cavity to create more space to work. Your surgeon identifies the cyst through the scope and removes the cyst. This technique is usually used to remove small cysts.
A laparoscopic cystectomy removes only the cyst leaving the ovaries intact. However, if the cyst is too large or connected to ovarian tissue, your surgeon removes all or part of the ovary. Laparotomy is an open surgical exploration of the abdomen to examine the organs of the abdomen. You will be administered general anaesthesia and a single, large cut is made through the abdominal wall. Then the abdominal muscles are separated to reach your ovary. In some cases the blood vessels supplying the ovary are clamped and tied off. Then the cyst is removed. Alternatively, samples of tissues may be removed for further analysis. If the cyst is cancerous, the doctor may need to take out the affected ovary. The abdominal muscles are sewed and the incision is closed with stitches.